Hand Saw

Prop Breakdown

Jiang Tongyuan


Jiang Tongyuan



Hello everyone, my name is Jiang Tongyuan, and I am currently a senior student about to graduate. I started learning game modeling in my junior year. I really like realistic textures and am learning for this purpose. I hope I can also create such works.

Inspiration and Goals

For this work, I mainly wanted to improve my texture drawing skills. I was browsing ArtStation and saw a really cool handsaw piece by Volodymyr Iliukhin.

I wanted to refer to his work and make a hand saw for practice.

The hand saw has three different materials: wood, tape, and metal. It is more suitable for practice, allowing me to learn a lot.


  • PureRef
  • 3ds Max
  • ZBrush
  • Marvelous Designer
  • RizomUV
  • Substance Painter
  • Marmoset


When looking for references, I mainly looked at ArtStation, where I found many works of excellent artists with the same materials. I also looked for references on some second-hand websites.

There are many interesting, detailed, and period objects there. This will help me give the piece more detail.



The model is not complicated. I chose to model it in 3ds Max. The main thing is to pay attention to whether the proportion of the model is reasonable.

You can choose any modeling software you are good at to make it.


For this model’s high poly, I used ZBrush to create it. I sculpted in ZBrush to add some details and edge damage. I didn’t carve too many details on the surface; I hope these can be expressed through the texture.

It is easier to modify. In ZBrush, I mainly dealt with edge damage and some damaged details that affect the outer contour.


For the electrical tape method on the model, I minified the model and imported it into Marvelous Designer. Then, I created a fabric panel and set its pressure to negative to make it adhere to the surface of the model.

Then I used the pins and dragged them manually to achieve the winding shape I wanted. Finally, I modified the cloth parameters and particle spacing to achieve the best effect.

Then I imported it into ZBrush to continue sculpting some tape aging, edge wear, and warping.


As a personal project, I chose to use ZBrush to reduce the low polygons of the hand saw handle, which is very convenient.

UV & Baking

UVs and baking, nothing special. For the UV split, I chose to use RizomUV. For this project, I used only one UV set. I baked the textures in Marmoset Toolbag.

I baked all the maps needed for the textures (normal, AO, curvature); normal, object, and position will be baked in Substance 3D Painter.


I painted the textures in Substance 3D Painter. I activated post-processing and increased the contrast to 0.01. I chose Tomoco Studio as my environment map.

It is not affected by too much natural light, making it easier for me to paint the textures.


I usually start with a wood texture. For the base material, I use a built-in shader called Wood Plain and tweak the parameters.


After the base layer was done, I added some sculpted paintings, painted in black and white in Photoshop, and imported them into Substance 3D Painter for mapping.


Then comes the step that I think is very important in making textures: paint color variations.

Rich color variations can greatly improve the effect of your textures.


I made this model darker on the left and right and lighter in the middle to create some contrast. It gets darker near the hand grip.

Also, when you’re working on the color changes, remember to modify the roughness at the same time. When adding your color variations, remember to focus on your base color.

The color variations you add need to be noticeable. Don’t add variations that don’t contrast well; it’s pointless.


Then I’ll work on the peeling of the wood on the surface. For peeling, I’ll create a paint layer and then map it with some damaged masks, which will be more controllable.

After painting, I add an anchor point to record the damage. This will make it easier to work on the edges of the damage and the dust inside the damage.


Next, I will process the volume layer. I divide the volume layer into AO occlusion and specular. Use the generator Ambient Occlusion and Curvature.

Use the generator or hand-painted mask, overlay the texture to paint, and pay attention to the color change and the roughness change.

Then for the dirt, I used the grayscale image that comes with the software. I adjusted the parameters and achieved the desired effect by overlaying textures and hand-painting.

These scratches also have color changes. I still choose to add anchor points to enrich the effect.


For the final addition, I kept it simple, using a grayscale image and adding some paint.


Next is the production of the tape. The overall idea is basically the same as the wooden handle.

First, deal with the bottom layer. I directly use a layer to adjust the color and roughness.


Then I simply processed the base color and gave it some basic color variation.

I also added a layer of height variation to achieve the effect of wrinkling the surface.


Then the most important color change is made, which is the basis for realistic texture.

Use a grayscale map overlay to enrich color changes and handle roughness at the same time.


Then the AO and edge grinding are done. I use the generator to overlay the grayscale image to increase the edge details.

At the same time, don’t forget the color and roughness of the edge details.


Final dirt and addition: use grayscale overlays and hand-painted methods just like the wood.

I added fingerprints in the final additional layer, which is a very interesting detail.


The production process of screws and saws is basically the same, so I will introduce it through the saw.

The same process is used, using a metal material ball for the bottom layer and adding some simple detail changes.


Color change: the same method, through the superposition of grayscale images, pay attention to the change of roughness.


For the texture of the saw, I kept it simple. I just added a horizontal brushed texture to show its wear.


For this saw, I focused on the rust and stain treatment on the surface.

When adding stains, please note that the saw teeth may not have too many stains due to the frequent use of membrane materials, so I erased some stains through the generator and hand-painting.


I want to add more details to this saw. I am very grateful to Huangyulong for his guidance, which allowed me to add obvious red rust on the edge of the saw to enrich the texture.

At the same time, it can better complete the connection between models.


Finally, I added the scratches and the paint on the surface. I added more horizontal wear on the jagged edges.


Lighting & Rendering

For lighting and rendering, I used Marmoset. I didn’t use extra lights, only one HDR to illuminate my scene. I picked a wooden board texture in Bridge as my background.

This enriched my scene. When rendering, I turned on ray tracing, which made my scene more realistic. I adjusted some camera parameters, such as focal length and post-processing, and finally rendered it.


Thank you for reading. I have a lot to learn, and this is just a small exercise for me. There are many things that can be improved, but I hope you can find something useful in this article.

I hope it helps you. Also, thank GamesArtist for giving me the opportunity to write this article, and thank Huangyulong and Aeworlri for their guidance. They helped me a lot and taught me a lot.

They are two amazing artists! This has been a great experience for me, and it motivates me to continue making new works.